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Benefits and evidence inflated in release about mesothelioma drug safety trial

Pembrolizumab shows promise in treatment of mesothelioma

Our Review Summary

harms of cancer screeningThis case series involving 25 patients looked at the effect of pembrolizumab on patients with pleural mesothelioma (a cancer that develops on the lining of the lungs) and found what appears to be an improved level of tolerance. By omitting many important details of the study, it’s very hard to determine what sort of advantage this treatment has over other existing treatments. Because this was a phase 1b safety trial, testing different doses for safety and side effects, it should be viewed with a healthy dose of skepticism until more carefully done controlled trials on effectiveness are completed. 

The release makes an effort to show some restraint in describing the study but it may not be enough to counteract the many references to “evidence” claimed here. The release also omits some significant financial conflicts of interests among the study co-authors.

 

Why This Matters

If there is a new class of drugs, checkpoint inhibitors, that are more effective than what’s been available in the past for mesothelioma, it could be a major advance for these patients. Unfortunately, this small study of 25 patients misses many important details and fails to establish the value of this therapy.

Criteria

Does the news release adequately discuss the costs of the intervention?

Not Satisfactory

No mention of costs here. Describing cost information in new cancer therapies is essential as it will have a significant impact on future patient access.

Does the news release adequately quantify the benefits of the treatment/test/product/procedure?

Not Satisfactory

The benefits aren’t put into clear context. It is only partially useful to know that 14 of 25 patients had “reduced tumor size” with pembrolizumab every two weeks. How much reduction was there?

Without a control group we have no idea how long patients would survive in the absence of the therapy, even if we are told in the release that “Most patients survive less than a year” with chemotherapy as the first-line treatment. We’re told that patients given pembrolizumab “went about six months without their disease progressing” and that 14 patients passed away during the study, and that four were still undergoing therapy.

How significant is it that 14 patients died during the study?

The study states the median survival from pembrolizumab treatment to be 5.7 to 10.7 months, very similar to the 6-7 months of standard second-line therapy noted in the news release.

Moreover, the goal of the study is to show safety, so claiming it’s “effective” is premature.

Does the news release adequately explain/quantify the harms of the intervention?

Satisfactory

The release mentions that “the most common side-effects reported were fatigue, nausea, loss of appetite, and dry mouth,” but we have no idea of magnitude of those effects or whether more serious, less common effects may have occurred.

The study reported that 64% of the patients had a treatment related adverse effect, but this wasn’t mentioned in the news release. Side effects directly relate to quality of life and could be a deal-breaker for many patients.

We’ve outlined some of the common challenges in writing about harms from immunotherapy drugs in this guide for journalists.

Does the news release seem to grasp the quality of the evidence?

Not Satisfactory

We need to see caveats around this type of research including the lack of a control group, and the many possibilities of bias that are involved in non-blinded studies. Sometimes blinding is not possible for ethical or other reasons and that may be the case here. Even so, the limitations of non-blinded research should be acknowledged.

To its credit, the release notes at the bottom that multiple other studies are being undertaken as “a necessary step before the drug can become a standard second-line therapy.” However, it then claims that the study “provides evidence that some patients can have long-term disease control with this drug” which seems to negate that wise caution.

Does the news release commit disease-mongering?

Satisfactory

There release doesn’t engage in disease mongering. It provides ample context on what malignant pleural mesothelioma is and how often it occurs, as well as current treatment strategies.

Does the news release identify funding sources & disclose conflicts of interest?

Not Satisfactory

The release notes that the study was funded by the manufacturer (Merck) and that no financial relationship exists between the lead researcher and the manufacturer.

However, according to the study, four of the co-authors do have individual conflicts of interest and three of the seven authors are Merck employees, two of whom own Merck stock options. These relationships go beyond Merck’s funding of the study and should have been mentioned in the news release.

Does the news release compare the new approach with existing alternatives?

Satisfactory

The release mentions that chemotherapy is a first-line treatment for these types of mesotheliomas and it alludes to other standard therapies without naming them. We are not told of the potential of other therapies to treat this disease and the prognosis of those patients, nor the effectiveness or safety of competing therapies. We’ll give the benefit of the doubt but that additional information would have been helpful.

Does the news release establish the availability of the treatment/test/product/procedure?

Not Satisfactory

Mesothelioma patients would want to know if the drug is available for them and that’s not the case here. As used in a phase 1b study the drug is considered experimental.

We are told that this treatment is used for other types of cancer so presumably it’s on the market. There may be a risk that some oncologists will see the release and use the drug “off label” for mesothelioma, since it is available for other conditions.

Does the news release establish the true novelty of the approach?

Satisfactory

The release states that the study “is the first to show a positive impact from checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy drugs on this disease.” We’ll give the benefit of the doubt here since the study may be the first of its kind, but the phase 1b trial set out to show safety, not effectiveness.

Does the news release include unjustifiable, sensational language, including in the quotes of researchers?

Not Satisfactory

The lead author is quoted as saying: “we’ve found this new class of drugs, checkpoint inhibitors, seems to be more effective than what’s been available in the past.” It is unclear that the trial proved its effectiveness and it certainly wasn’t compared to another drug.

And as noted above, claiming effectiveness based on a phase1b safety trial is unjustified and potentially dangerous since the drug is available to physicians who treat other cancers, they could use the drug to treat mesothelioma off label.

Total Score: 4 of 10 Satisfactory

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